- Increasing the level of sodium in the body causes an expansion of the extracellular fluid which increases blood pressure. Maintaining steady sodium levels is principally achieved through regulation of excretion through the kidneys. The capacity for renal excretion is lower in the very young and the elderly.
- Increasing long-term intake of dietary sodium has been shown to increase BP across all study populations and age ranges. Prolonged high BP has been associated with stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure and kidney disease and has also been linked to dementia and premature death.
|1.1 - Chronic bowel disorders|
|1.2 - Constipation and bowel cleansing|
|1.3 - Diarrhoea|
|1.6 - Gastric acid disorders and ulceration|
|1.7 - Gastro-intestinal smooth muscle spasm|
|1.9 - Obesity|
|1.10 - Rectal and anal disorders|